E445 -- Novae demonstrationes circa resolutionem numerorum in quadrata

(Proof that every Integer is a Sum of Four Squares)


Euler wrote this in response to a paper by Lagrange.

According to the records it was submitted on September 21, 1772, then taken back in 1773 and on March 24, 1774, it was presented to the St. Petersburg Academy for the second time.

The following details have been related by Ed Sandifer:
On November 19, 1773, the Academy had its meeting to pick the articles to publish in the Mathematics section of the next volume of the Novi Commentarii. They picked eight articles by Euler, E-445 and E-448 to E-454. Three days later, they received two articles from Daniel Bernoulli in Basel, one of which was very closely related to one of Euler's articles, not on the list (E-447) about sums of sines of angles that are in geometric progression. They decided to publish that one right next to Euler's article, but that made the Mathematics section of that volume too big. So, Euler volunteered to withdraw one of his articles. He picked E-445 and sent it to the Acta Eruditorum instead.


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